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Hydrocephalus | Neurology Medicine Lectures | Study Online

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Hydrocephalus is the condition in which the build-up of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cavities (ventricles) occurs deep within the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid normally flows through the ventricles and bathes the brain and spinal column.

Most prevalent in infants and adults over 60. In hydrocephalus patients, the pressure of too much cerebrospinal fluid increases the size of the ventricles, damaging brain tissues and causing a range of impairments in brain function.

We bring you this Medicine Neurology lecture by Dr. Hina Khan on Hydrocephalus.

Lecture Duration - 00:59:00
Release Date - July 2020

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✔️ ️Etiology of Hydrocephalus
Little is understood about the causes of hydrocephalus. But be can be divided into two causes: One is the acquired (Arnold-Chiari syndrome) and the other is congenital (Dandy-Walker syndrome).

✔️ Anatomy and Physiology of Hydrocephalus
Learn the pathology of Hydrocephalus with respect to the anatomy of the skull and brain. And how changes in the CSF effects the physiology to change.

✔️ Types of Hydrocephalus
Based on onset, presence of structural defects or high vs. normal CSF pressures, hydrocephalus can be divided into multiple categories. Communicating hydrocephalus and non-communicating (obstructive) hydrocephalus.

Another category is: hydrocephalus ex-vacuo, occurs due to a degenerative disease like Alzheimer’s and normal pressure hydrocephalus, is a form of communicating hydrocephalus.

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✔️ ️Clinical Features of Hydrocephalus
There are very apparent physical symptoms of Hydrocephalus, which need to be determined via physical examination. As a neurologist, you need to look for enlarged head, protruding veins, Macewen’s sign, setting sun sign, depressed eyes, and many others.

✔️ ️Hydrocephalus-Investigations
To elucidate the type of hydrocephalus multiple imaging techniques are used like radiographic images, cranial ultrasound, brain scans using radioisotopes, arteriography, computed tomography (CT scan), echoencephalography and occipitofrontal circumference measurements (OCM). Lumbar puncture (spinal tap) may also be used to assess cerebrospinal fluid.

✔️ Treatment of Hydrocephalus
Based on the underlying etiology, different therapies are often required to manage symptoms or functional impairments resulting from hydrocephalus.

There is medical treatment with certain drugs, surgical and nursing management, to better take care of patients.

✔️ Surgical Treatment of Hydrocephalus
The goal of surgical treatment for hydrocephalus is to restore and maintain normal cerebrospinal fluid levels in the brain. Can be achieved by removing the obstruction of CSF or indirectly by diverting the excess fluid via shunting of CSF.

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